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Bhumi Impex distributor stocking a Stainless Steel metals including Titanium, Nickel and Aluminum, Bhumi Impex distributes Carbon Steel Tubing, Steel Pipe and Tube in the India and Gulf Countries. With over 19 years in business Large inventory of Stainless Steel Grade 304 products.

304 Stainless Steel
304L Stainless Steel
304H Stainless Steel
Chemical Composition of Stainless steel 304
Properties of Stainless Steel 304
Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 304
Physical Properties of Stainless Steel 304
Alloy Designations
Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel 304
Heat Resistance of Stainless Steel 304
Fabrication of Stainless Steel 304
Cold Working of Stainless Steel 304
Hot Working of Stainless Steel 304
Heat Treatment of Stainless Steel 304
Machinability
Welding of Stainless Steel 304
Applications of Stainless Steel 304
Supplied Forms

Background

Stainless steel types1.4301 and 1.4307 are also known as grades 304 and 304L respectively. Type 304 is the most versatile and widely used stainless steel. It is still sometimes referred to by its old name 18/8 which is derived from the nominal composition of type 304 being 18% chromium and 8% nickel.

304 Stainless Steel

Stainless steel 304 is an austenitic grade that can be severely deep drawn. This property has resulted in 304 being the dominant grade used in applications like sinks and saucepans.

304L Stainless Steel

Type 304L is the low carbon version of Stainless steel 304. It is used in heavy gauge components for improved weldability. Some products such as plate and pipe may be available as “dual certified” material that meets the criteria for both 304 and 304L.

304H Stainless Steel

304H, a high carbon content variant, is also available for use at high temperatures.
Property data given in this document is typical for flat rolled products covered by ASTM A240/A240M. ASTM, EN or other standards may cover products sold by Aalco. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this datasheet.


Chemical Composition of Stainless Steel 304

Table 1. Typical chemical composition for 304 stainless steel alloys

%

304

304L

304H

C

0.08 max

0.03 max

0.10 max

Mn

2.0

2.0

2.0

Si

0.75

0.75

0.75

P

0.045

0.045

0.045

S

0.03

0.03

0.03

Cr

18-20

18-20

18-20

Ni

10.5

12

10.5

N

0.1

0.1

-

Properties of Stainless Steel 304

Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 304
Table 2. Typical mechanical properties for 304 stainless steel alloys

Grade

304

304L

304H

Tensile Strength (MPa)

520

500

520

Compression Strength (MPa)

210

210

210

Proof Stress 0.2% (MPa)

210

200

210

Elongation A5 (%)

45

45

45

Hardness Rockwell B

92

92

92


Physical Properties of Stainless Steel 304
Table 3. Typical mechanical properties for 304 stainless steel alloys

Property

Value

Density

8.00 g/cm3

Melting Point

1400-1450°C

Modulus of Elasticity

193 GPa

Electrical Resistivity

0.072x10-6 Ω.m

Thermal Conductivity

16.2 W/m.K at 100°C

Thermal Expansion

17.2x10-6 /K at 100°C


Alloy Designations
Stainless steel 304 also corresponds to the following standard designations and specifications:

Euronorm

UNS

BS

En

Grade

1.4301

S30400

304S15
304S16
304S31

58E

304

1.4306

S30403

304S11

-

304L

1.4307

-

304S11

-

304L

1.4311

-

304S11

-

304L

1.4948

S30409

304S51

-

304H


Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel 304

Stainless steel 304 has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide variety of environments and when in contact with different corrosive media. Pitting and crevice corrosion can occur in environments containing chlorides. Stress corrosion cracking can occur at temperatures over 60°C.

Heat Resistance of Stainless Steel 304

Stainless steel 304 has good resistance to oxidation in intermittent service up to 870°C and in continuous service to 925°C. However, continuous use at 425-860°C is not recommended if corrosion resistance in water is required. In this instance 304L is recommended due to its resistance to carbide precipitation.

Where high strength is required at temperatures above 500°C and up to 800°C, grade 304H is recommended. This material will retain aqueous corrosion resistance.

Fabrication of Stainless Steel 304

Fabrication of all stainless steels should be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use. These precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.

Cold Working of Stainless Steel 304

Stainless steel 304 readily work hardens. Fabrication methods involving cold working may require an intermediate annealing stage to alleviate work hardening and avoid tearing or cracking. At the completion of fabrication a full annealing operation should be employed to reduce internal stresses and optimise corrosion resistance.

Hot Working of Stainless Steel 304

Fabrication methods, like forging, that involve hot working should occur after uniform heating to 1149-1260°C. The fabricated components should then be rapidly cooled to ensure maximum corrosion resistance.

Heat Treatment of Stainless Steel 304

Stainless steel 304 cannot be hardened by heat treatment.
Solution treatment or annealing can be done by rapid cooling after heating to 1010-1120°C.

Machinability

Stainless steel 304 has good machinability. Machining can be enhanced by using the following rules:
· Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening.
· Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material.
· Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work
· Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.

Welding of Stainless Steel 304

Fusion welding performance for Stainless steel 304 is excellent both with and without fillers. Recommended filler rods and electrodes for stainless steel 304 is grade 308 stainless steel. For 304L the recommended filler is 308L. Heavy welded sections may require post-weld annealing. This step is not required for 304L. Grade 321 may be used if post-weld heat treatment is not possible

Applications of Stainless Steel 304

Stainless steel 304 is typically used in:
· Sinks and splashbacks
· Saucepans
· Cutlery and flatware
· Architectural panelling
· Sanitaryware and troughs
·  Tubing
·  Brewery, dairy, food and pharmaceutical production equipment
·  Springs, nuts, bolts and screws

Supplied Forms

Stainless steel 304 is typically supplied by Aalco in a range of finishes in the following forms:
· Sheet
· Plate
· Welded mesh
· Quarto plate
· Round bar
· Flat bar and rolled edge flat bar
· Equal angle
· Square bar
· Hollow bar
· Seamless pipe
· Welded pipe
· Seamless butt weld fittings
· Welded butt weld fittings
· Flanges
· Seamless tube
· Hygienic fittings
· Round, square and rectangular decorative tube



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